Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Babble on...

An easy and informative read on language development.  Of note:

Babies have to hear real language from real people to learn these skills. Television doesn’t do it, and neither do educational videos: recent research suggests that this learning is in part shaped by the quality and context of adult response.

I know it's somewhat dangerous to extrapolate findings from one research domain to another - but isn't it likely that all learning is mediated by the quality and context of the teacher's response?  I also like the author's bit at the end about how his exam room is his laboratory - I'd love to see more educators approach the classroom in the same light.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Don't forget step 2...

Getting from Here to There: The Roles of Policy Makers and Principals in Increasing Science Teacher Quality

Nothing says Sunday afternoon (for an education geek) like trolling through the Journal of Science Teacher Education for open-access articles to read. While I'm happy that this one is open, it's frustrating to read that the researchers note that a challenge leaders experience in improving STEM education is accessing formal science education research data. I'm assuming that the access issues are related to cost -- at $30 or so per article, this is no surprise. How great would it be (for educators, perhaps not for publishing companies) if research that was funded with public money had to be published openly on the web?

There are lots of good ideas in this article - it's worth a full read, but here are a few quips if you don't have time at the moment:

Potential collaboration opportunities include Web sites or blogs that promote information sharing between schools and policy makers, rotating positions for principals as state and federal policy consultants, short-term “internships” for policy makers in schools and principals in federal and state legislative offices, and professional development workshops involving policy makers at different levels in evidence-based debates regarding what is required to effectively teach science.

Policy makers in school, and school leaders making policy? That sounds so ... logical!

With access to more information than federal and state policy makers or principals in isolation in terms of pedagogical approaches and incentives for high quality instruction, principals can work together to generate effective policy strategies to improve science teaching in their unique school environments.

Sounds like a nice grant opportunity. In the mean-time, I'm using Twitter to build my own network of principals and teachers - as are many others.

Principal communities, and the use of technology to create communication channels among principals, policy makers, and science education researchers are promising mechanisms for generating effective policy at the federal, state, and school level.

The pieces and players are here -- step 2 = open access & knock down barriers. Go!

Saturday, October 2, 2010

Don't throw the baby out with the bath water, though...

The canary in the education reform movement's coal mine - Connecticut Post

Ricciotti seems almost giddy at the thought of Rhee's termination, a stance I see as it's own canary. The infighting within and politicization of education is, I worry, just as dangerous as flawed efforts like Rhee's (and others') to implement MBA-style education reform. Sure, measuring teacher quality with - and only with - a standardized test is a sure-fire way to stifle innovative teaching. However, it'd also be dangerous to have a knee-jerk reaction to this and lose sight of the research base that shows the strong causal relationship between teacher qualities and student learning. Measuring teacher qualities and student learning is important, and just because the current regime's methods are blunt and ill-used doesn't mean we should put a halt to our efforts to arrive at a better understanding of how education works.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Banned Books Week

ALA | Banned Books Week

Banned Books Week makes me think of Steven Pinker's work on language, in particular the concept of "word magic". He wrote a nice article for The Atlantic a couple of years ago called "Freedom's Curse" on government censorship of the media; it serves as a solid starting point for his argument, which is expanded in some of his scholarly works. While I'm not advocating for carpet-bombing the classroom with the f-word (even though Pinker's market argument would apply there for students & teachers just as much as it does on the radio or on TV), the slope is too slippery when books get banned. As Aristotle said, "it is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it." Let's take this week as an opportunity to celebrate intellectual freedom and the important role that libraries and librarians play in protecting it.

Monday, September 20, 2010

Observatory - Clues to Human Thought Found in Worm’s Brain -

Observatory - Clues to Human Thought Found in Worm’s Brain -

Misleading title for an article that feels ... shoddy and overly excited (even for a brain nerd like me). I thought we learned from the Human Genome Project that it's not just about the genes, it's about the proteins (and the cell-cell connectivity and communication patterns, but we'll leave that for another day). Griping aside, it sounds like the marine ragworm will made a nice model organism to help chart out the evolution of the human brain.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

Autism spectrum and education

Our professional development "kick-off" event this school year was a presentation from a local psychiatrist who specializes in working with children who are dysfunctional along the Austism spectrum. I've blogged in the past about the infrequent link between vaccination, mitochondrial disorders, and Autism-like symptoms (because this is such a controversial issue, please note: as stated previously, I am a strong proponent of vaccines and the large-scale research that demonstrates that vaccines do not cause Autism). I remain interested in the Autism spectrum because of the complexity of the problem from a research perspective, the potential benefits to education from discovering more information about causes of and treatments for the disorder, as well as my own growing experience in working with students who are dysfunctional to some degree along the spectrum.

The Autism spectrum is usually broken down into three regions: Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Individuals in each of these regions of the spectrum have dysfunction in communication and processing skills, but it is the severity of their atypical function that drives classification into a specific region of the spectrum. Language skills are the most important difference between those classified as having Autism versus Asperger Syndrome. Individuals with Autism generally have no or very low-level language skills, while those with Asperger Syndrome can have language skills that are similar to others of the same age. However, there are some important differences in language use and processing in those with Asperger Syndrome, such understanding some of the subtleties of interpersonal communication like metaphor.

One of the new facts that I learned from our presenter that there is a strong coincidence of ADHD, OCD, and TS with Asperger Syndrome (AS). This piqued my interest a bit, because I'm somewhat familiar with the overlap in medications used to treat these disorders - many of them are antipsychotics that target the brain's dopamine receptors. I also learned from our presenter that individuals with AS often become focused on one "need", and that behavioral melt-downs are often triggered when that need is not met as quickly as the individual wants. Our presenter described this symptom, quite poetically I thought, as an "unbearable agony of unmet desire". Yet again this made me think of dopamine, because of it's frequent association with brain-based explanations of desire.

I started to wonder about dopamine's role in Autism spectrum disorders, and began doing some research. I've discovered that there are two medications that have been approved to treat the irritability mentioned by our presenter that is often associated with these disorders. The newest medication is called "Abilify", approved in 2009. "Risperidal" was approved in 2006 for the treatment of certain autism-related behaviors. Both medications are considered atypical antipsychotics because they target both dopamine and serotonin receptors. I also found some relatively new computational biology research proposing that dopaminergic processing is not reward-based, but expectation-based. If AS is caused, in part, by dopamine malfunction in the brain, this new research from computational biology certainly supports the urge from our presenter to avoid reward/punishment strategies with AS individuals, and to be as consistent as possible when they become focused on a particular need being met. Though not specifically tied to dopamine function, Alfie Kohn's article in the New York Times on conditional parenting is, in essence, a psychological debunking of reward and punishment as an effective strategy for influencing behavior, regardless of dysfunction along the Autism spectrum.

Perhaps Asperger Syndrome involves dopaminergic pathway disorder, but given that it is a spectral disorder, it's not surprising that medications that target other neurotransmitter pathways are able to treat - with some success - individuals with dysfunction along the spectrum. Research is also beginning to link the prosocial deficits associated with Autism with genetic and epigenetic oxytocin receptor abnormalities. Research in synapse formation is also emerging as a resource to help us understand the link between Autism and savantism, which, though rare, is 10 times more prevalent in those with dysfunction along the Autism spectrum. Learning more about the brain function of savants, given their amazing skills in many fields, clearly has great potential in helping us to understand how the non-savant brain learns and processes information.

Though the Autism spectrum is of interest from a brain research perspective because of the complexity involved and the potential gains in neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education, my feeling is that the most important lessons we can learn at this point in time are those that will help us to provide the best educational experience for our current students "on the spectrum". I'm particularly focused on those with AS, since they have language skills sufficient to be successful in a variety of classroom settings. It's clear to me that consistent expectations and interactions are important for these students, and others. Professionals also recommend that we should coordinate our work with others who have an impact on these students, such as parents, school nurses, psychologists / psychiatrists, and other teachers. Although I'm certainly biased by my interest in the brain and cognitive psychology, I recommend that other schools engage in professional development around the issue of working with students with Autism spectrum disorders. The lessons learned will improve your work with all students.